Stream and air temperature data from stream gages and stream confluences in the Andrews Experimental Forest, 1950 to present

CREATOR: Stanley V. Gregory, Sherri L. Johnson
ORIGINATOR: Stanley V. Gregory
OTHER RESEARCHER: Christopher Daly, Adam M Kennedy, Stephanie A Schmidt
ABSTRACTOR: Donald L. Henshaw, Sherri L. Johnson
METHOD CONTACT: Greg Downing, Greg M Cohn
FORMER INVESTIGATOR: Stanley V. Gregory, Randall C. Wildman, Craig Creel, John Moreau
22 Oct 2004
23 Dec 2019
Disturbance, climatology, microclimate, stream order, air temperature, water temperature, disturbance, monitoring, ecosystems
Stream temperature is a critical parameter in stream ecosystems and controls rates of multiple processes, such as metabolism, growth, decomposition, and solubility of gases, as well as biotic interactions. Measuring stream temperature at stream gages allows examination of long term responses to forest dynamics and forest harvest. These stream and air temperature data also are relevant to research on nutrient dynamics, stream flow, invertebrate and vertebrate responses to microclimate conditions.
Experimental Design - HT004 :
Description: Stream and air temperature sites were originally selected in the upper elevations of the three major stream segments, upper Lookout, upper Mack and upper McRae Creek, that combine to form Lookout Creek, as well as off-Andrews sites in Grasshopper and Quartz Creeks. These stream temperature sites were initiated in the late 1970's as an extension to the air and soil temperature network. The upper Mack Creek, Quartz and Grasshopper Creek sites have been discontinued. Additional sites were added in 1995 to the confluences of Lookout-Mack and Lookout-McRae Creeks to examine mixing of water temperature compared to relative flows. However, due to problems with maintaining sensors during winter and flood flows, the Lookout-McRae site was discontinued. In 1997, stream and air temperature sensors were placed at all Andrews gaging stations (WS#9 was not instrumented due to threat of potential vandalism). A legacy stream temperature data set, maintained by USGS, exists from 1950 to 1981 (missing 1955-1963) at Lookout Creek gaging station.
Field Methods - HT004: General:

Originally, thermographs (later replaced with data loggers and thermistors) were installed at each stream site to continuously monitor stream temperature with an adjacent air temperature site near the stream. Stream temperature probes are generally anchored near the stream bottom. Air temperature was generally measured at 1 meter above the forest floor and insulated originally with an A-frame shield (later replaced with pvc-constructed shields). Many of the probes were repositioned in the early 1990's at 1 meter above average winter snow level. Generally, sites are visited and charts / CR10 records collected on a monthly basis. In 1987, Campbell Scientific CR-10 data loggers replaced 8 circular chart installations at the original sites. Early Lookout Creek stream temperature data 1950-1981 was collected by the USGS.

The original thermograph instrument was the Dual Recording Thermometer Model RFHTT. This instrument records temperatures from two separate locations (air and soil) simultaneously on a single chart. Each of the two thermometer mechanisms operate with a mercury-filled sensing bulb which expands or contracts in response to temperature changes and in turn moves the recording pen along the calibrated chart. To prevent interference between the two pens, the right-hand pen records 1/12 revolution behind the left-hand pen. The recorder uses 10 inch 30- and 31-day Partlow circular charts that have ranges from -30°F - 170°F or 20°F - 120°F.

These original thermograph charts were replaced with Campbell Scientific data loggers ( typically CR10, CR21X, CR500, or CR23X) beginning in 1987. The temperature probes used with the data loggers were type T thermocouple soldered from thermocouple wire. These thermocouple wires have gradually been replaced through the late 1990-s with Campbell Scientific model 107 temperature probes (CS107B or CS107B-L) which include the Fenwal Electronics UUT51J1 thermistor.

Instrumentation: The original thermograph instrument was the Dual Recording Thermometer Model RFHTT, which recorded on Partlow circular charts. Campbell Scientific data loggers with type T thermocouple soldered from thermocouple wire to measure temperature were used beginning 1987. Beginning in the late 990s Campbell Scientific model 107 temperature probes (CS107B or CS107B-L) which include the Fenwal Electronics UUT51J1 thermistor were gradually installed.
Field Methods - HT004: Stream and air temperature:

A description of sites and measurement history is here:

Laboratory Methods - HT004 :
Description: Digitizing chart records was the primary method of capturing data until 1987 when data loggers begin to be installed. Digitizing continued for some sites until 1995. Charts were digitized and the record summarized by daytime, nighttime, and 24-hr period. The 24-hr mean values before 1987 are sunrise to sunrise; after January 1987 the 24-hr values are midnight to midnight. All daytime/nighttime calculation ended in 1998, and this data is only available by request.
Instrumentation: Digitizer is the Summagraphics/Houston Instruments model MM 1812. (Comparable product is now
Quality Assurance - HT004:
Description: Quality assurance procedures included 1) missing flag check to ensure that all missing data really has the appropriate flag; 2) date/time check to verify that a record exists for each date (and hour if applicable) and that records fall in the correct order; 3) relative mean/max/min check for each record to make sure that min less than or equal to mean and mean less than or equal to max; 4) similar sites were paired and the values compared to catch any gross outliers.
Air and water temperatures are measured at gauged watersheds within the Andrews Forest and at other stream sites including Mack and McRae Creek confluences with Lookout Creek. Stream sites nearby the Andrews were collected briefly but were discontinued. Data collection began in 1976 but several sites were discontinued by the mid-1990s. Most of the gauged watershed collections were started between 1995 and 1998.
Oregon: western Cascades - HJ Andrews Experimental Forest Gauging Stations at WS1, 2, 3, 6, 7, 8, 10, Mack Creek, and Lookout Creek. Stream thermograph sites on upper Lookout, upper McRae, Mack/Lookout confluence, and legacy sites Mack old-growth, McRae/Lookout confluence, Quartz Creek (Blue River tributary), and Grasshopper Creek (S. Fork McKenzie).
Ground condition
Key references of this database include: Johnson, Sherri L. and Jones, Julia A. Stream temperature responses to forest harvest and debris flows in western Cascades, Oregon. Canadian Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences. 2000; 57(Suppl. 2):30-39.