Easter, M.J., and T.A. Spies. 1994. Using hemispherical photography for estimating photosynthetic flux density under canopies and in gaps in Douglas-fir forests of the Pacific Northwest. Canadian Journal of Forest Research 24: 2050-2058
Gray, A.N., and T.A. Spies. 1995. Water content measurement in decayed wood and forest soils using time domain reflectometry. Canadian Journal of Forest Research 25: 376-385.
Gray, A.N., and T.A. Spies. 1996. Gap size, within-gap position, and canopy structure effects on seedling establishment of conifer species in forest canopy gaps. Journal of Ecology 84(5): 635-645.
Gray, A.N., and T.A. Spies. 1997. Microsite controls on tree seedling establishment in conifer forest canopy gaps. Ecology 78(8):2458-2473.
Gray, Andrew N., Thomas A. Spies, and Mark J. Easter. 2002. Microclimatic and soil moisture responses to gap formation in coniferous forests.
Canadian Journal of Forest Research 32: 332-343.
McCune, B. 1993. Gradients in epiphyte biomass in three Pseudotsuga-Tsuga forests of different ages in western Oregon and Washington. Bryologist 96: 405-411.
McCune, B. 1994. Using epiphyte litter to estimate epiphyte biomass. Bryologist 97: 396-401.
Van Pelt, R., and M.P. North. 1996. Analyzing canopy structure in Pacific Northwest old-growth forests with a stand-scale crown model. Northwest Science 70(special issue): 15-30.
Van Pelt, Robert, and Jerry F. Franklin. 1999. Response of understory trees to experimental gaps in old-growth Douglas-fir forests. Ecological Applications 9(2): 504-512.
Van Pelt, Robert, and Jerry F. Franklin. 2000. Influence of canopy structure on the understory environment in tall, old-growth conifer forests. Canadian Journal of Forest Research 30(8): 1231-1245.
Vogt, K.A., D.A. Publicover, J. Bloomfield, J.M. Perez, D.J. Vogt and W.L. Silver. 1993. Belowground responses as indicators of environmental change. Environmental and Experimental Botany 33:189-205.
Vogt, K.A., D.J. Vogt, H. Asbjornsen, and R.A. Dahlgren. 1995. Roots, nutrients and their relationship to spatial patterns. Plant and Soil 168-169: 113-123.
Gitzen, R.A. 1999. The Effects of Experimental Canopy Gaps on Small Mammal Communities in the Southern Washington Cascades. M.S. Thesis. University of Washington, Seattle, WA.
Gray, A. N. 1995. Tree seedling establishment on heterogenous microsites in Douglas-fir forest canopy gaps. Dissertation. Oregon State University, Corvallis, OR .&amp;amp;amp;lt;br&amp;amp;amp;gt;
London, S.G. 1999. Spatial Distribution of Understory Vegetation in Tree Canopy Gaps of the Pacific Northwest. M.S. Thesis. Oregon State University, Corvallis, OR.
Monteleone, S.E. 1997. Light spectra distributions in temperate conifer_forest canopy gaps, Oregon and in tropical cloud_forest canopy, Venezuela. Dissertation. University of North Texas, Denton, TX.
St. Pierre, E.A. 2000. Effects of canopy gaps in Douglas-fir forests and resource gradients on fecundity and growth of understory herbs. Dissertation. Oregon State University, Corvallis, OR.
Van Pelt, R. 1995. Understory Tree Response to Canopy Gaps in Old-growth Douglas-fir Forests of the Pacific Northwest. Dissertation. University of Washington, Seattle, WA.