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MS005
Air and soil temperature data from the Reference Stand network at the Andrews Experimental Forest, 1971 to present

PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR: Christopher Daly
ORIGINATOR: W. Arthur McKee
OTHER RESEARCHER: Mark D Schulze, Julia A. Jones, Adam M Kennedy
DATA SET CONTACT PERSON: Donald L. Henshaw, Suzanne M. Remillard
ABSTRACTOR: Donald L. Henshaw
METHOD CONTACT: Adam M Kennedy
FORMER INVESTIGATOR: Donald B. Zobel, Frederick A. Bierlmaier, Jonathan W. Smith, David Greenland, Lynn D. Rosentrater, John Moreau
METADATA CREATION DATE:
13 Oct 2004
MOST RECENT METADATA REVIEW DATE:
15 Mar 2016
KEYWORDS:
Disturbance, Organic matter, Primary production, meteorology, climatology, dew point, microclimate, water content, temperature, air temperature, soil temperature, environmental indexes, reference stands, succession, primary production, growth, disturbance, monitoring, ecosystems, moisture stress
PURPOSE:
Characterize the microclimates for the range of elevations, aspects, and habitat types found within the Andrews Experimental Forest for plant production, simulation modeling and studies of microclimate/plant community structure relationships. Provide baseline data for all the studies utilizing the Andrews in conjunction with six Benchmark Meteorological Stations, and to monitor the effects of forest management and physiography on microclimate.
METHODS:
Experimental Design - MS005:
Description:

Sites were originally selected from common and contrasting plant communities in established reference stands. The original 19 sites represent three vegetation zones and along environmental gradients of elevation and moisture. Other sites were added in the late 1970's with some original sites discontinued. The network was collapsed in the 1990's, and the current sites are primarily used for monitoring long-term changes in temperature. The following link summarizes general vegetation zones: http://andrewsforest.oregonstate.edu/data/studies/ms05/meta/veg_zones.pdf.

Citation:

Zobel, D. B.; McKee, W. A.; Hawk, G. M., and Dyrness, C. T. Correlation of forest communities with environment and phenology on the H.J. Andrews Experimental Forest, Oregon. In: Waring, R. H. and Edmonds, R. L., eds. Integrated research in the coniferous forest biome. Seattle, WA: Coniferous Forest Biome; 1974; Bulletin 5 pp. 48-56.

Field Methods - MS005: General:
Description:

Originally, thermographs (later replaced with data loggers and thermistors) were installed in each reference stand to continuously monitor air and soil temperature. Air temperature was generally measured at 1 meter above the forest floor and insulated originally with an A-frame shield (later replaced with pvc-constructed shields). Many of the probes were moved to 3 meter heights in winter during the 1980's above snow level, and reinstalled at 1 meter for the summer. In the late 1980's and early 1990's, probes were established permanently at 1 meter above average winter snow level. Soil temperatures were measured nearby with probes buried at 20 cm depth (later, three probes were buried at 10, 20, and 30 cm at most sites). Generally, sites are visited and charts/CR10 records collected on a monthly basis.

Other history: In 1987, Campbell Scientific CR-10 data loggers replaced 8 circular chart installations. On seven of these sites, soil temperature is now measured at three depths: 10, 20, 30 cm. On the other CR-10 site (RS13), additional air and soil probes were added in the adjacent meadow, and soil temperature is measured at 20 cm depth. In the summer of 1991, the chart installations were removed from theCR-10 sites (RS 2,4,12,13,14,20,24,26) where they were serving as a backup to the CR-10. All sites are under the forest canopy, with the exception of RS13 meadow site, and RS86, RS89, and TS38 which were clearcuts now overgrown (as of 1990's).

Mean daytime air and soil temperatures were used to calculate a temperature-growth index (TGI). This index weighs the temperature by their relative effects upon growth of pseudotsuga menziesii seedlings in a controlled environment. This is intended to provide a representation of temperature more closely related to plant growth (Zobel et al. 1974). It is used as a uniform index to compare the plant communities measured, primarily in the 1970's.

Plant moisture stress was measured until 1975 on saplings under the stand using a pressure chamber. The value (atmospheres) represents the negative of the pressure potential of the xylem sap. The value used is the greatest average stress recorded on a single date at each site. (Note: data is only available 1973-1976 and perhaps was developed by algorithm from earlier pressure bomb data).

Instrumentation: The original thermograph instrument was the Dual Recording Thermometer Model RFHTT. This instrument records temperatures from two separate locations (air and soil) simultaneously on a single chart. Each of the two thermometer mechanisms operate with a mercury-filled sensing bulb which expands or contracts in response to temperature changes and in turn moves the recording pen along the calibrated chart. To prevent interference between the two pens, the right-hand pen records 1/12 revolution behind the left-hand pen. The recorder uses 10 inch 30- and 31-day Partlow circular charts that have ranges from -30°F - 170°F or 20°F - 120°F. These original thermograph charts were replaced with Campbell Scientific data loggers ( typically CR10, CR21X, CR500, or CR23X) beginning in 1987. The temperature probes used with the data loggers were type T thermocouple soldered from thermocouple wire. These thermocouple wires have gradually been replaced through the late 1990-s with Campbell Scientific model 107 temperature probes (CS107B or CS107B-L) which include the Fenwal Electronics UUT51J1 thermistor.
Field Methods - MS005: Air temperature:
Description:

Please follow this link to see a general description and history of air temperature measurements for these stations:

http://andrewsforest.oregonstate.edu/data/studies/ms01/meta/air.htm

Temperature data has been measured with a variety of instruments:

  • Thermocouple wire: Probe is type T thermocouple soldered from thermocouple wire
  • Campbell Scientific thermistor probe: Campbell Scientific model 107 temperature probe (CS107B, CS107B-L) includes the Fenwal Electronics UUT51J1 thermistor
  • Vaisala Relative Humidity/Temperature probes: Temperature and relative humidity are sampled by a Campbell Model HMP35C or the HMP45C probe containing a Vaisala capacitive relative humidity sensor and a Fenwal Electronics UUT51J1 thermistor

Probes were housed in locally designed PVC radiation shields from the 1980s until the mid 2000s. Gill radiation shields replaced the PVC shields at all of the benchmark sites after a significant concurrent comparison was made. Aspirated shields are also now in use. The original 1.5 meter Primary Met Station sensor was housed in a Cotton Region Shelter. Historical methods included Rustrak strip charts with thermister where air temperature is measured by a Yellow Springs Instruments linear thermistor in a standard Cotton Region Shelter and continuously recorded on a separate 30-day Rustrak strip chart scaled from -10 degrees C to 40 degrees C.

Data loggers are typically Campbell Scientific (CR10, CR21X, CR500, or CR23X). Early data loggers used in the 1980s are Interface Instrument models M-2, M-3, and M-4.

Instrumentation: Thermocouple wire; Campbell Scientific model 107 temperature probe (CS107B, CS107B-L) includes the Fenwal Electronics UUT51J1 thermistor; Campbell Model HMP35C or the HMP45C probe containing a Vaisala capacitive relative humidity sensor and a Fenwal Electronics UUT51J1 thermistor; Campbell Scientific data loggers (CR10, CR21X, CR500, or CR23X); Interface Instrument models M-2, M-3, and M-4
Field Methods - MS005: Soil temperature:
Description:

Please follow this link to see a general description and history of soil temperature measurements for these stations:

http://andrewsforest.oregonstate.edu/data/studies/ms05/meta/soi.htm

Starting in 1997-1998, mean six-hourly soil temperature are measured at the sites at three depths (10, 20, 30 cm). Thermocouple wire was used in the earliest measurements and were protected inside of a PVC structure. Soil temperature was digitized on a sunrise to sunrise basis. A some point in the 1980's, depending on site, a true daily summary is available due to the use of a revised digitizing program. The revised program produces output similar to the CR10 dataloggers used for thermographs. In 1997-1998, depending on site, a CR10 datalogger is installed, and additional soil depths at 10 and 30 cm are added. The Partlow chart recorder was maintained until 31 May 1990 as a backup, and then removed.

Instrumentation: Thermocouple wire: Probe is type T thermocouple soldered from thermocouple wire or, Campbell Scientific thermistor probe: Campbell Scientific model 107 temperature probe (CS107B, CS107B-L) includes the Fenwal Electronics UUT51J1 thermistor. Data logger is a Campbell Scientific, typically CR10, CR21X, CR500, or CR23X.
Laboratory Methods - MS005 :
Description: Digitizing chart records was the primary method of capturing data until 1987 when data loggers begin to be installed. Digitizing continued for some sites until 1998. Charts were digitized and the record summarized by daytime, nighttime, and 24-hr period. The 24-hr mean values before 1987 are sunrise to sunrise; after January 1987 the 24-hr values are midnight to midnight. The exceptions to this are any pre-1987 periods that were redigitized. All sunrise-sunrise values are coded as such. Before January 1981, daily minimum air temperature is the nighttime minimum and daily maximum air temperature is the daytime maximum. This causes occasional violations of the min < mean < max rule. Regression estimates were used where possible to estimate missing data points (values flagged) in the early record. A temperature growth index is calculated based on daytime air and daily soil temperature. All daytime/nighttime calculation ended in 1998, and this data is only available by request.
Instrumentation: Digitizer is the Summagraphics/Houston Instruments model MM 1812. (Comparable product is now http://www.calcomp.com/productsummagrid6.htm)
Quality Assurance - MS005:
Description: Quality assurance procedures included 1) missing flag check to ensure that all missing data really has the appropriate flag; 2) date/time check to verify that a record exists for each date (and hour if applicable) and that records fall in the correct order; 3) relative mean/max/min check for each record to make sure that min is less than mean is less than max; 4) similar sites were paired and the values compared to catch any gross outliers.
Field Methods - MS005: Relative Humidity :
Description:

Please follow this link to see a general description and history of relative humidity measurements for these stations:

http://andrewsforest.oregonstate.edu/data/studies/ms05/meta/rel.htm

Relative humidity is output hourly and is measured at a height of 150 cm at two sites using Vaisala sensors with Campbell data loggers.

Instrumentation: Temperature and relative humidity are sampled by Campbell Model HMP35C or HMP45C probes containing a Vaisala capacitive relative humidity sensor and a Fenwal Electronics UUT51J1 thermistor. The probes were originally housed in a locally-designed PVC radiation shield, which were later replaced with Gill radiation shields. Campbell Scientific data loggers are used.
SUPPLEMENTAL INFORMATION:
Driven by an emphasis on phenology, plant moisture stress, and plant physiology, data were summarized into diurnal and nocturnal segments. Processing data into daytime and nighttime periods was discontinued in 1998.
SITE DESCRIPTION:
Sites range from xeric to mesic communities; 380 to 1570 meters elevation; mature (old growth) forests, shelterwood cuttings and clearcuts, burned and unburned.
TAXONOMIC SYSTEM:
None
GEOGRAPHIC EXTENT:
Andrews Experimental Forest Reference Stands: Original stations were Reference Stands 1 to 20, 24, 26, 86, and 89 and temperature measurement sites 31 to 38 and 74 to 77. Currently, Reference Stands 2, 4, 5, 10, 12, 20, 26, 38, 86 and 89 are measured.
ELEVATION_MINIMUM (meters):
380
ELEVATION_MAXIMUM (meters):
1430
MEASUREMENT FREQUENCY:
Continually
PROGRESS DESCRIPTION:
Active
UPDATE FREQUENCY DESCRIPTION:
annually
CURRENTNESS REFERENCE:
Ground condition
RELATED MATERIAL:

Key references of this database include:

Smith, Jonathan W. Mapping the thermal climate of the H.J. Andrews Experimental Forest, Oregon. Corvallis, OR: Oregon State University; 2002222 p. M.S. thesis.

Rosentrater, Lynn D. The thermal climate of the H.J. Andrews Experimental Forest, Oregon . Eugene, OR: University of Oregon; 1997133 p. M.S. thesis.

Zobel, D. B.; McKee, W. A.; Hawk, G. M., and Dyrness, C. T. Correlation of forest communities with environment and phenology on the H.J. Andrews Experimental Forest, Oregon. In: Waring, R. H. and Edmonds, R. L., eds. Integrated research in the coniferous forest biome. Seattle, WA: Coniferous Forest Biome; 1974; Bulletin 5 pp. 48-56.